Ibn Khaladoun (1332-1406) Link to BBC radio4 and professor Charles Butterworth interview.

Ibn Khaladoun (1332-1406) is considered as the founder of  the modern day discipline of social science and history. In his writings he took account of economic, sociological and demographical factors.

The golden age of Islam according to some authors started in the 8th century and ended in the 13th century (750-1258) .  In actuality the golden age started with the onset of Islam in the 7th century and ended with the onset of the colonial period and occupation. The Mongol invasion dealt a severe blow to the Muslim regions east of Egypt but they did not slip into dark age. Soon after the death and destruction inflicted by the Mongols, revival  took place and scholars like Ibn Khaladoun and others  emerged and  progress in science, architecture, art, and in every other field continued and ended with the the onset of the colonial period  and the European occupation.

The Mongol invasion brought an end to the Abbasid Caliphate in the 13th century and soon after the leadership was taken over by the Ottoman empire. Khaliq

Here is a link to a discussion on Ibn Khaladoun on a program called In Our Times on BBC Radio4. The second link is an interview with Dr. Charles Butterworth of Maryland University on Ibn Khaladoun


Al Kindi a polymath. BBC radio 4, in our times, a link

The injunction of Islam to seek knowledge was given a high priority by early Muslims. Quite early in their  history Muslim started to excel in Science, Philosophy, medicine, architecture, governance and vertically in every other field.

The rulers valued education and scholarship and contributed heavily in support of education and on  institutions of learning.  Al-Kindi (800-873) a polymath(expert in several fields) was appointed by the by the Abbaside Caliph to lead team of translators to translate Greek  works on science, medicine, philosophy etc, into Arabic. (from Arabic many of these works were translated into Latin and other European languages).

Here is a link to a discussion on Al. Kindi on a BBC  rodio 4 a program called “In Our Times”.

Golden age of Islam, Abbasid Caliphs, a link to BBC radio 4. In our times

Abbasid rule began in 750 and ended  in 1258. They moved the Capital from Damascus to Baghdad and it grew to a population of about 2 million under their rule. Most of the caliphs were enlightened, valued scholarship and spend heavily on the  institutions of learning and education. It is estimated that their expenditure on education in relation to their revenue was much higher than the governments of the most advanced countries spend on education today. This was a major factor that led to the golden age(8th to 13th century).  Below is a link to a discussion on Abbasid Caliphate on a BBC rodio 4 on program called “In Our Times”.


Early expansion of Islam a discussion on BBC radio 4- In our Times

Islam spread very quickly in Arabia and beyond after the  death of the Prophet(pbuh) in 632, The Prophet (SAWS) was born in 570 and the Hijrat (the migration to Madina) took place in 622. Here is a link to a discussion on  Arab conquest on BBC radio 4 in a program called “In our Times|”

Rumi- BBC Radio 4- “In Our Times”

Rumis poetry, a link to a BBC radio 4 program Called In Our Times. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi was born in Balkh, Afghanistan in 1207 and died in 1273 and is buried in Konya, Turkey.  he is From 1245 to1261 he wrote fifty thousand verses known as Diwan-Shams e Tabrazi. After 1261 in twelve years he wrote Masnavi.