The injunction of Islam to seek knowledge was given a high priority by early Muslims. Quite early in their history Muslim started to excel in Science, Philosophy, medicine, architecture, governance and vertically in every other field.
The rulers valued education and scholarship and contributed heavily in support of education and on institutions of learning. Al-Kindi (800-873) a polymath(expert in several fields) was appointed by the by the Abbaside Caliph to lead team of translators to translate Greek works on science, medicine, philosophy etc, into Arabic. (from Arabic many of these works were translated into Latin and other European languages).
Here is a link to a discussion on Al. Kindi on a BBC rodio 4 a program called “In Our Times”.
Abbasid rule began in 750 and ended in 1258. They moved the Capital from Damascus to Baghdad and it grew to a population of about 2 million under their rule. Most of the caliphs were enlightened, valued scholarship and spend heavily on the institutions of learning and education. It is estimated that their expenditure on education in relation to their revenue was much higher than the governments of the most advanced countries spend on education today. This was a major factor that led to the golden age(8th to 13th century). Below is a link to a discussion on Abbasid Caliphate on a BBC rodio 4 on program called “In Our Times”.
Rumi‘s poetry, a link to a BBC radio 4 program Called In Our Times. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi was born in Balkh, Afghanistan in 1207 and died in 1273 and is buried in Konya, Turkey. he is From 1245 to1261 he wrote fifty thousand verses known as Diwan-Shams e Tabrazi. After 1261 in twelve years he wrote Masnavi.